steven-gellar-katz-lcsw-rStephen Geller Katz LCSW-R

Misophonia Cognitive Retraining Therapy


Misophonia Cognitive Retraining Therapy, as featured on the MTV True Life episode: “I Have Misophonia” premiering Friday, December 16th, 7:00 PM EST. See Clip >

Are you Suffering from any of these symptoms as a result of Misophonia? Call for a Free 15 Minute Consultation.

  • Mild to severe anxiety
  • Rage or Anger
  • Triggered fight or flight
  • Depression
  • Negative thinking
  • Crying spells
  • Hopelessness
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Avoidance of people or places
Moderate to severe anxiety triggered by chewing sounds, including:
  • Nail clipping 
  • Brushing teeth
  • Eating sounds
  • Lip smacking
  • Breathing
  • Certain voices
  • Sniffing
  • Talking
  • Sneezing
  • Yawning
  • Walking
  • Coughing
  • Chewing gum
  • Laughing
  • Snoring
  • Typing on a keyboard
  • Whistling
  • Certain consonants

You may also be affected by visual stimuli, such as repetitive foot or body movements, fidgeting or movement you observe out of the corners of their eyes. 
Intense anxiety, rage and avoidant behavior may develop as a result of misophonia.

woman-misophonia* Do you feel your family and friends don’t understand how much you suffer?

* Do you often feel you can just suffer through a social event where there is eating present only to find that you must “escape” before you have a panic attack?

* Do you find that some people are at first understanding and make some efforts not to make the triggering sounds in front of you, but soon forget and constantly have to be reminded, causing you to feel angry, anxious and depressed?

* Are you avoiding social activities that you enjoy because of the misophonia?

* Are you fearful of losing your job and/or is the misophonia effecting your job performance?

If you answered yes to 3 or more of these questions or symptoms, then we can help.

You may be a candidate for Misophonia Cognitive Retraining Therapy, or MCRT.

Stephen Geller Katz, LCSW-R, with over 20 years of clinical experience, a New York University graduate, developed Misophonia Cognitive Retraining Therapy and founded Misophonia Cognitive Center in response to the growing number of people with Misophonia coming to his private practice from audiologists and ENTs. He discovered that by helping people to retrain and reinterpret the thoughts around their Misophonia, anxiety and depression symptoms began to improve. But even more important so did the Misophonic trigger response.

Call us at 646-585-2251 for a FREE consultation.

Category Archives: Sound Disorders

Sound Disorders Causes & Treatment

What are the main sound disorders causes & treatment? Misophonia or selective sound sensitivity syndrome is a sound-related condition that leads to aggression, anger, and irritation. People with misophonia cannot stand some types of sounds. When they hear a triggering sound, they lash out because they can’t handle their mind’s aversion to the sound. Triggers may vary from one person to another. For instance, many people find pen tapping triggering but chewing doesn’t bother them as much.

Let’s not forget that what triggers one person won’t necessarily trigger someone else. Reactions range from running away, annoyance and even rage. Misophonia is an under-researched and poorly understood condition. Before 2000, people referred to this condition as selective sound sensitivity syndrome. Then, experts selected the Greek word misophonia to name the condition. In 2011, various new channels aired stories about misophonia to increase awareness.

Sound Disorders Causes & Treatment

Causes of Sound Disorders (Misophonia)

Because there has been limited research on this topic, we know little about the exact causes. However, experts came up with the following factors as cause the emotional response.

1.     Brain Chemistry

Research indicates that people with misophonia have differing brain connectivity between the auditory cortex and the anterior insular cortex. The anterior insular cortex or AIC is a section of the brain that’s responsible for emotional processing.

2.     Other Mental Conditions

People with Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety disorders develop misophonia.

3.     Tinnitus

Many people suffering from misophonia confirmed that they initially had tinnitus. With time, their tinnitus grew worse, and now, they lose their patience when they hear certain sounds.

4.     Genetics

Misophonia is a genetic condition that can run in the family. So, if a member of your family suffers from the condition, you are likely to develop it as well.

Many people create awareness about this condition through social media platforms. Nevertheless, research is lacking. As we have little data, we cannot pinpoint the actual reason for the condition

Some researchers suggest that misophonia is becoming a common condition. Hence, experts should understand the symptoms and mechanisms of this condition. Furthermore, professionals should come up with an effective treatment plan to reduce its effects.

Diagnosis of Sound Disorders (Misophonia)

When you visit a doctor to address the condition, they use a hearing test to identify the issue. An ordinary doctor can’t diagnose misophonia and similar conditions. Therefore, you need to visit an audiologist, who is a hearing specialist. To consult with an audiologist in NYC, contact Misophonia Cognitive Center.

The audiologist will instantly run advanced listening tests and identify the triggers by making different sounds and examining their responses. For instance, they might tap a pen or stump on the floor. An audiologist measures the reaction by attaching painless electrodes to the ears. This way, they can record the brain’s reaction to the sound.

Treatments for Sound Disorders (Misophonia)

Misophonia doesn’t offer any proper treatment, but you can choose different therapies to reduce the effects of this condition. Here are some therapies that you can opt for with this condition:

1.     Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

This type of therapy is helpful to remove associations and negative thoughts about certain triggering sounds. When you stop perceiving triggering sounds as negative, you can avoid an adverse reaction. A study published in the Journal of Affective Disorders suggests that about 50% of people living with misophonia faced a reduction in symptoms after taking CBT.

2.     Medications

There is no approved medication for misophonia. As a result, audiologists suggest medications for depression or anxiety to address these co-occurring conditions.

3.     Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT)

This preventive method involves wearing a device that diverts your focus from the triggering noises. The more you pay attention to the sound, the more of a negative response your brain will generate. Therefore, ignore the noises by learning and practicing these relaxation techniques. The therapy is perfect for minimizing automatic stress response. Traditionally, people used Tinnitus Retraining Therapy for Tinnitus. It significantly reduces the impact of triggering noise to your brain and improves your focus on the main goal.

Main Sound Disorders Causes & Treatment

Preventive Measures for Sound Disorders (Misophonia)

Other than treatments, you can adopt some coping strategies, lifestyle changes, and relaxation techniques to reduce misophonia symptoms. Here are some strategies you should try:

  • Earplugs can block triggering noises
  • You can use a white noise machine to avoid certain noises
  • When you feel overwhelmed, try wearing earphones
  • If you find a noise irritating, turn on music or television to eliminate those frequencies
  • Learn stress management techniques and practice when you listen to triggering noise
  • Adjust your environment to get rid of items that produce annoying sounds
  • Change your position and practice relaxation techniques such as visualization or deep breathing

Also, talk to others about your condition to see if they can help. That way, people won’t make that noise when you are around. For instance, if someone is whistling or chewing gum and you feel annoyed, talk to them about your negative response.

Sound Disorders Causes & Treatment: Conclusion

Get a free consultation from world renowned expert in sound disorders, Stephen Geller Katz LCSW-R, and make an appointment. Dr. Katz has successfully treated thousands of patients with these types of disorders from all over the world.

Call today to schedule a free consultation on phone or online video session:

Stephen Geller Katz LCSW-R
19 West 34th Street
Penthouse Floor
New York, NY 10001

Misophonia Cognitive Center: Treatments for Sound Disorders

What are the main treatments for sound disorders? There can be instances where normal daily sounds like chewing, tapping a pen, or even wagging your feet can cause misophonic reactions in certain people. They are highly intolerant to certain specific sounds and show aggression in response.

treatments for sound disorders

It is a highly disturbing and lifestyle-altering mental health condition that makes it troublesome for many people to enjoy their social lives. The sounds can become unbearable and cause them to lash out. Nonetheless, there are several different ways to cope with and treat the symptoms of this condition to ensure a peaceful and minimally disturbed life.

Reality of Misophonia

Misophonia, also known as selective sound sensitivity syndrome, was first classified as a condition during the early 2000s. Besides, there are many scientists and researchers are investigating whether to consider Misophonia as a real sound disorder as the symptoms are mild to severe.

Despite that, there is a lack of research and studies to confirm most of the potential claims and reasons. Moreover, it is not yet a recognized sound disorder in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fifth Edition. Therefore, official diagnostic criteria and principles do not exist.

Also, Misophonia can have an average onset during the ages of 11-12 years old. Still, there is a need for effective research and experiment results to reach valid conclusions for this neurological disorder.

The hypersensitivity to certain normal sounds can trigger harsh and aggressive reactions from misophonic people. The reactions can differ in misophonic people, and one may show aggressive behavior while the other may feel annoyed hearing the same noise.

Overall, Misophonia triggers an autonomic and nervous system reaction, i.e., a “fight or flight” response. Thus, a misophonic person will experience either irritation and try to evade trigger sounds or lash out. Such uncertainty and discomfort can affect a misophonic person’s lifestyle. Eventually, they may struggle with depression, anxiety, bipolar attitude, etc.

Treatments for Sound Disorders (Misophonia)

·       Sound Therapy

Multidisciplinary approaches (e.g., psychiatry, audiology, primary healthcare) are the best Misophonia treatments. Many audiologists specialize in helping misophonic patients rewire their brain’s auditory portion. Their main tool of helping misophonic patients is sound therapy, through which they try to regulate a misophonic person’s reaction to the trigger sounds.

treatments for sound disorders specialist

The treatment may prolong according to the complexity and severity of the patient’s condition. In addition to that, slight results might appear in the first few weeks of the treatment.

Nevertheless, despite the enthusiasm and dedication to mental wellness, the treatment may not yield results overnight. Firm dedication and family support are a plus for effective Misophonia treatment as the condition can largely affect the lives of people around you.

·       Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT)

Initially used as a tool for treating tinnitus in people, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy involves the use of attention-redirecting sounds to treat Misophonia. The sounds in TRT can help in diverting the attention and focus of a misophonic person. Subsequently, this can ensure a reduction in the severity and reaction appeal of certain sounds, such as chewing, pen tapping, screeching, etc.

It can also help misophonic people to ignore and reduce the autonomic stress that can lead to irritation and aggressive behavior.

·       Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) focuses on the mechanism and the thought process that leads to adverse reactions and thinking in misophonic patients. Hence, CBT helps in improving the negative thought process and the anticipation of sound triggers. Conclusively, it can help in reducing patients’ responses to certain trigger sounds and perceive them in a different way.

·       Counseling

Counseling is a great way to let out inner thoughts and ideas. Likewise, a misophonic person can express their emotions, and the therapy helps them in catharsis. Apart from that, counseling therapy can help ease the stress of the family and friends by making them comfortable and understand the patient’s condition.

·       Medication

At present, there isn’t any medication or prescriptions available under the approval of the Food and Drug Administration of the United States to treat Misophonia. However, your doctor may prescribe medicines to help counter the anxiety symptoms that cause severe aggression.

Treatments for Sound Disorders: Conclusion

Looking for the best treatments for Misophonia or other related mental health conditions? Look no further because, at Misophonia Cognitive Center (official website for more info), Stephen Geller Katz LCSW-R is one of the top specialists for sound disorders and conditions, including Misophonia and Tinnitus.

Ring us at 646-585-2251 to schedule a tele-session from anywhere in the world. Dr. Katz speaks 5 languages and is the preeminent specialist in treating sound disorders. Call today.

Misophonia Cognitive Center: Treatments for Extreme Sound Disorders

What are extreme sound disorders? Misophonia means the “hatred of sounds”, but it does not necessarily mean that everyone who has a certain irritation to some sounds is misophonic. In reality, the sound of forks scraping plates and nails on a chalkboard or wall is something that almost everyone finds unpleasant.

Extreme sound disorders

According to experts, Misophonia is a condition in which people show moderate to intense reactions, including severe irritation, anger, and aggression, when they encounter some specific sounds and noises. Bear in mind that these sounds may be normal to other people, and they might not even notice them. These include chewing, pen tapping, screeching, whistling, rustling, typing, clicking, ticking, etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Misophonia (Sound Disorder)

Apart from the number of emotional reactions, including annoyance, anger, irritation, stress, anxiety, and depression, there are certain physical reactions as well. Several studies suggest the following:

  • Rapid blood pressure drops and spikes
  • Heart rate increase
  • Muscle tightness
  • Pressure through the body (chest pressure)
  • Body temperature increase

Outlook of Misophonia (Sound Disorder) Symptoms

The symptoms are the body’s response when something sudden happens. For instance, the person may experience muscle tightness or a sudden rise in body temperature. However, such a fight or flight response of the nervous system is automatic and can trigger subconsciously or unconsciously.

In simple words, the body perceives certain Misophonia trigger sounds as threats and consequently produces stimuli in accordance with it. Therefore, feelings of panic, rage, and anger are common.

More importantly, misophonic people don’t go to social gatherings and events to avoid sudden reaction outbursts upon encountering Misophonia triggers. Others might go beyond control and isolate themselves, wear headphones unnecessarily, and avoid social interactions.

Diagnosis of Extreme Sound Disorders

Misophonia is not yet recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Consequently, there is a lack of official diagnostic principles. Despite that, scientists consider Misophonia as a discreet psychiatric disorder that is separate from other similar mental health conditions.

In addition, scientists do believe Misophonia is similar to other mental disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and many phobias (hence, “phobia of chewing”). However, they still conclude that none of the said conditions fully exhibit the extent of characteristics that exist in misophonic people.

Those characteristics of Misophonia include:

  • Anticipation of trigger sounds results in irritation and anger
  • Avoidance of social interaction and trigger sounds environment
  • Loss of control under anger
  • Disruption in regular tasks and activities
  • Feelings are highly dissimilar in comparison with other mental disorders

Treatments for Extreme Sound Disorders

While there is no official diagnostic approach to Misophonia, numerous treatments are available that may help in alleviating the symptoms of this neurological disorder.

Moreover, you should know that there are no approved medications or prescriptions in the US (by the FDA) for Misophonia treatments. Nonetheless, your doctor can provide a set of prescriptions to help control anger, anxiety, blood pressure spikes, and stress.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) works to improve the understanding of this mental health condition to the misophonic patients and the people around them (i.e., family and/or friends). The core understanding behind how certain trigger sounds might lead to anger or irritation helps Misophonia patients. Thus, they are able to cope with it and improve their reactions to the trigger sounds.

CBT works to establish the rectification of the negative thinking pattern that causes people to fear, anticipate worse, and react adversely even when nothing has happened. Another objective of CBT is to teach patients to control their emotions and avoid irrational reactions.

Some of the techniques include mindfulness, emotional regulation, distress tolerance, etc.  Moreover, CBT also helps misophonic patients relax by triggering the relaxation response of the body.

White Noise Treatment

White noise treatment generally refers to the use of ear-level devices that can play sounds, such as aesthetically calm waterfall noises or a river flowing. This helps in masking the unintentional or trigger sounds to prevent adverse reactions.

Eventually, a misophonic patient gets better at ignoring the trigger sounds and focusing on the calm sounds. In simple terms, it is the addition of background music to the environment that only the wearer of the white noise machine hears (i.e., ear-level devices rather than room-level devices such as fans).

Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT)

Tinnitus is a condition in which a person hears ringing in their ear. The consistent ringing in the ear can cause discomfort and restlessness.

Therefore, TRT helps in controlling the reactions against such noise as well as Misophonia trigger sounds. Likewise, they also help in enhancing the tolerance of the misophonic patient against the trigger sounds.

Extreme sound disorders treatment specialist

Other Therapies

Many different therapies also help treat Misophonia and other extreme sound disorders. They include hypnotherapies, neurofeedback, biofeedback, acupuncture, and several autism treatments.

However, there isn’t sufficient research and data to support the effectiveness of these therapies. That said,  experts are focusing on the prognosis of this neurological disorder.

Extreme Sound Disorders: Conclusion

If you are in search of treatments for extreme sound disorders for you or someone in your family, then visit the  Misophonia Cognitive Center

Stephen Geller Katz LCSW-R  has extensive experience and knowledge in the field of sound disorders such as tinnitus and misophonia.  By using the latest equipment and research principles, Dr. Katz ensures to deliver effective treatment results.

Call 646-585-2251 to schedule an online appointment today.

Visit our main website for more information: 



Misophonia & Tinnitus Comparisons & Contrasts

What are the similarities and differences between misophonia and tinnitus? Common sound disorders include tinnitus and misophonia. These conditions relate to the intensity and type of sound. But, both of these conditions have some similarities and differences. If you are confused about distinguishing between both these conditions, this article will help you understand both disorders. So let’s start with tinnitus:

What is Tinnitus?

Tinnitus is a common condition that occurs as a result of numerous reasons. In this condition, you start hearing unwanted noise that may or may not come from an external sound source. The condition can be the consequence of an ear infection or blood pressure. You may also develop tinnitus when you suddenly hear a loud noise.

Misophonia Tinnitus comparisons contrast

The sounds a person hears as a result of tinnitus may vary from person to person. The sound may also differ because of the cause. The most common sound that people experience is a ringing sound. It’s why people refer to this condition as the ringing of the ears. Or, you may hear a buzzing, whistling, grumbling, or hammering sound.

Most people returning from a nightclub or a concert experience a beeping sound in their ears. Keep in mind that loud noise can affect your ears, so it is essential to protect them with earplugs. Tinnitus due to loud sounds indicates damage to your hearing. When this happens due to no reason, it’s a sign that you have tinnitus.

Tinnitus is a genetic condition, and people with a family history are more likely to develop this condition. So if your parents or siblings have experienced tinnitus, you should be careful. Visit an ENT surgeon or a practitioner, and they will share ways on how to protect your ears from the condition.

Causes of Tinnitus

Tinnitus may increase over time. Also, the condition grows worse with other health issues, such as an ear infection, trauma, and neck injury. Ear specialists diagnose your condition and evaluate the reason for the development of tinnitus. The actual reason for tinnitus is still unclear. Below, you will find some of the common causes of tinnitus:

·       Hearing Loss

Your hair cells contain a cochlea, which generates electrical signals. They are tiny and delicate hair cells that move when the ear receives the sound. The movement of these nerves sends the signals to the auditory nerve of the brain. The brain converts these signals from waves and interprets them into sound. When the cochlea in your ear bends, it generates random signals to the brain. This happens because of continuous exposure to loud noise or age. When the brain receives these signals, it continuously triggers the ringing sound.

·       Ear Canal Blockage or Ear Infection

When your ear canal builds up or earwax, fluid caused by an ear infection, dirt, or other foreign material, it creates pressure in the ear, leading to the characteristic tinnitus sound.

·       Medications

You may develop tinnitus due to various medications. Normally, when you consume high doses of certain medications, your tinnitus may get worse. Sometimes, when you quit using the medication causing this unwanted sound, you start feeling better. Therefore, if you feel that the drugs are the cause of your tinnitus, you should stop using them. If the ringing sound disappears after you quit the medication, discuss it with your doctor so they can prescribe you some other medication. Some common types of medication, such as cancer drugs, certain antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-malarial, antidepressants, and water pills, can cause tinnitus.

What is Misophonia?

Misophonia, unlike tinnitus, is a mental condition and not hearing damage. In this condition, sounds such as swallowing, chewing, smacking, and sniffing, become intolerable. The sound becomes so annoying that you start showing a strong reaction against such actions. Sounds related to the mouth are a common trigger for misophonia. Around 80% of the most triggering sounds come from the mouth. These triggers include popping gum, chewing, whispering, slurping, and eating. On the other hand, 60% of the sounds are repetitive such as tapping, knuckle-cracking, and banging. In some cases, you may also develop visual triggers. When this happens, you feel annoyed even when you watch someone tapping or hammering even the sound is not audible.

Tinnitus Misophonia comparisons contrast treatment

Misophonia can force you to react with downright aggression or annoyance. The condition can be very severe. Some people avoid visiting restaurants and bars because they fear that triggering sounds will prevent them from enjoying themselves. The current knowledge about Misophonia circulates on few studies. Just like with tinnitus, you can wear plugs to deal with repetitive sounds.

Causes of Misophonia

Misophonia is a mental disorder that occurs because of the over-activation of the nervous system. The actual cause of this condition is still unclear. However, Anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, neurodevelopmental disorders, or post-traumatic disorders may be the reason for your misophonia. Furthermore, tinnitus can also be the reason for the development of Misophonia. For instance, when you suffer from tinnitus, the constant sound of the cochlea can trigger signals to your brain, causing this mental condition.

Misophonia & Tinnitus: Conclusion

Both tinnitus and misophonia can have genetic causes. It means that you’re more genetically predisposed to developing the condition if people from your family have had it as well. Therefore, it is important to consult with a specialist and seek help identifying your risk factors in developing these conditions.

Contact tinnitus and misophonia specialist Stephen Katz LCSW and setup an online session. He treats patients from all over the world who suffer from these conditions.  Dr. Katz is fluent in 5 languages and is at the forefront of treating and curing sound disorders.

For more information, visit the main website at: Misophonia Cognitive Center

Misophonia Cognitive Center: Causes of Misophonia & Sound Disorders

What are the causes of misophonia & sound disorders? Misophonia, or the “hatred of sound” in Greek, is also known as selective sound sensitivity syndrome. In this condition, certain sounds and noises trigger various mild to intense reactions in misophonic people. Their general reactions to certain sounds and noises include anxiety, depression, evasive tactics, anger, irritation, and, sometimes, outburst aggression and physical lash-outs.

Causes of Misophonia Sound Disorders

Despite a wide range of Misophonia trigger sounds and the respective behavior or reactions, every misophonic person might not react the same way to the same sounds or noises. In fact, while one may be calm or slightly annoyed, the other may show violent behavior or engage in verbal abuse upon encountering Misophonia triggers.

About Misophonia

While Misophonia is prevalent in men and women of all ages, there is a lack of research and studies. The term “Misophonia” came into use during studies in the year 2000. It was called selective sound sensitivity syndrome in later years, and due to the spread of awareness, experts are now focusing on different aspects of Misophonia and possible treatment options.

However, Misophonia is not recognized and listed as a mental health condition and sound disorder in the DSM-5.

Potential Causes of Misophonia and Sound Disorders

Misophonia has similar signs and symptoms as other mental health conditions, such as anxiety, bipolar, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Moreover, it also includes outburst reactions and aggression that severely autistic people show.

Nevertheless, there is no “definite” connection between these conditions and Misophonia (some doctors believe that it is possible). In addition, researchers also believe that Misophonia can occur at an early age without any association with these mental health conditions.

Here are some factors that scientists, researchers, and doctors believe can be potential causes of Misophonia:

Other Mental Health Disorders

Many doctors agree that Misophonia can accompany certain mental health conditions like Tourette syndrome, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and/or OCD in people.


Moreover, if a person is not yet misophonic and has a close blood-related family member with Misophonia, then there is a higher risk of developing the same condition over time.

Brain Chemistry

Few researchers suggest that emotional processing, i.e., the interconnectivity and the working of certain brain components in some people, might give rise to Misophonia and related symptoms.


Tinnitus is a condition that requires special medical care. In this condition, a person hears an unreal ringing sound that no one else is usually able to notice or perceive.

While the awareness has increased, there is still a lack of adequate research and studies to forefront definitive answers to Misophonia. The scale of studies and reports remains small, and thus further biological and empirical evidence is still lacking to confirm certain aspects of the condition.

What Part Does Your Brain Play Misophonia Sound Disorder?

A recent study shows the key role that the brain plays in a misophonic person’s condition. It suggests that the brain is responsible for assimilating the external outputs with the internal organs and their output. Hence, the production of stimuli that causes the emotion processing of the brain to cause Misophonia in some people.

How Can Misophonia Impact Lifestyle?

Misophonia can adversely affect the life of an individual, such as personal and social life. The outburst reactions and the uncontrollable anger can result in disastrous situations, especially where there are a lot of people around.

Subsequently, after reacting, a misophonic person feels guilt and shame, which leads them to avoid social gatherings, events, occasions, and friend circles. They assume that it is better to stay away from intolerable random noises than showing anxious and stressful behavior.

Top Causes of Misophonia Sound Disorders

On the other hand, some misophonic people find it difficult to sleep as some Misophonia triggers might exist in their house, such as ticking clocks or tapping window panels.

Diagnosis of Misophonia

As the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5) does not recognize Misophonia for official diagnoses, there are limited treatment methods. However, in 2013, proposed diagnostic principles and researches supported the idea of handling Misophonia as a discreet and separate psychiatric disorder.

The same proposed diagnostic principles outline certain main characteristics of Misophonia in people, as follows:

  • Distress due to Misophonia triggers that disturb daily life
  • Anticipation/ thought of a trigger sound can result in anger, disgust, or irritation
  • Intense discomfort, irritation, or anger when tolerating trigger sounds and avoiding trigger sounds’ occasions
  • Anger resulting in loss of control
  • Feelings are not comprehensible through any other mental health disorder or condition

Regardless of the lack of any official diagnosis, your general doctor might be able to suggest treatment methods or practices for you to cope with this mental health condition.

Causes of Misophonia Sound Disorders: Conclusion

Do you feel irritation and anger upon hearing certain sounds? Don’t waste time, and get the medical care that you deserve. Contact Dr. Stephen Geller Katz LCSW-R today.

At the Misophonia Cognitive Center, Dr. Katz utilizes the best systems to dramatically improve or cure serious sound disorders. Dr. Katz is a world renowned specialist who has helped MANY patients overcome the symptoms of Misophonia and related mental health conditions.

Call 646-585-2251 to book an appointment today. Visit the official Misophonia website for more info.


References & related links:,or%20stress%20the%20unconditioned%20stimulus.

Hypersensitivity to Sound

Hypersensitivity to sound is a condition in which sound waves from a certain frequency enter into your ear and the brain interprets them in an exaggerated manner, causing an overwhelming reaction. This condition is more commonly known as Hyperacusis. Hyperacusis is an extremely rare condition that causes some sounds appear unbearably loud to the person who suffers from this disorder. 1 in 1500 people has Hyperacusis and most people who have Hypercusis also suffer with Tinnitus, which is a disorder that causes you to hear loud ringing noise in your ear. It is different from any other hearing disorders like Phonophobia and Misophonia.

Hypersensitivity to Sound | Disorders

A human ear has the frequency of hearing a wide range of sounds. Numbers range from 20Hz – 20 kHz. Anything above this range will sound unbearably loud to a normal human being. A person suffering from hypersensitivity to sound or Hyperacusis may find sounds that are well within the normal hearing range to be incredibly loud. Noises like babies crying, car engines starting, and in some instances, even conversational voices of people who speak in a slightly higher tone, can cause an abnormal reaction.

Hypersensitivity to Sound


The causation of this disorder is to do with the brain, since the brain is responsible for interpreting sound waves and forming them. Causes include situations that could have caused some sort of brain damage. Injuries point to the most convincing cause of brain injury that could lead to hyperacusis. Other common causes include being exposed to loud noises. However, some people are just born with hypersensitivity to sounds maybe because they inherit it from their parents.

Side Effects

This disorder can be very painful for some people because it can have a traumatic effect in your life. The traumatic effect is usually a by-product if the Hypersensitivity or Hyperacusis is an incidental occurrence. There have been many reports of students being exposed to a loud noise and then developing Hypercusis, which ultimately resulted in them being scarred for life, e.g., losing interest in studies and being unproductive. People who start developing Hyperacusis socially isolate themselves because they are always consciously blaming themselves for being a trouble for others. This can also Lead to severe depression, and in some cases, insomnia.


The general symptoms are headaches, pain, and fear. On some rare occasions, a person can also develop insomnia. A person with this disorder is also likely to run into situations that cause him to go into a full-blown panic attack. Hyperacusis has a link with other diseases and disorders. A symptomatic patient of hypersensitivity is more likely to display an introverted personality. This is evident because avoiding interactions gives you a better chance of not running into loud places or people. A person with this condition can experience a pinching pain in the ear if he/she hears a loud sound.

Hypersensitivity to Sound | Noise Disorders


There is no medically facilitated treatment for hypersensitivity to sounds yet. Researches are underway on this illness. However, many people have ascribed to seeking help in the form of therapy. A lot of people benefit from therapy and there is therapy for almost all kinds of illnesses. The go-to therapy for Hyperacusis is sound therapy. This therapy has worked for many people. Apparently, it helps getting your sensitivity to normal by using hearing devices or noise generators that can reduce your sensitivity to some sounds over a course of time.

Another option is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, otherwise known as CBT. This therapy focuses on getting you in control of the negative thoughts in your brain. It has positive results since this disorder has a connection with the health of your brain. A therapist usually counsels the patient over a number of sessions in order to get to the root of the problem and try to understand it on a subconscious level. Other therapies include several different types of relaxation therapies, massages, sauna and even acupuncture.

Hypersensitivity to Sound: Final thoughts

Dealing with a disorder that has no procedural treatment can be extremely tough and it is not uncommon to lose your will to live. What is most important when coping with hearing disorders is keeping your mind and body happy. Living your life in a positive and fulfilling way can help you fight any problems that the world provides. If you look closely, you will realize that this is the same objective that most therapies are trying to achieve.

If you face problems with Hyperacusis, please contact Stephen Katz at the Misophonia Cognitive Center.

Sound Disorders: Do Certain Noises Make Your Blood Boil?

Do you have a sound disorder from certain noises? Psychological disorders have always raised controversial questions for neuroscientists. Individuals with mental disorders can display unexplainable behavior. The inner workings of the brain still remain a mystery regardless of all the progress in medical science. Misophonia is a condition that causes a person to be annoyed or irate by certain noises and sounds. Experts are still behind on the research of this mental disorder and so it does not have a proper diagnosis or treatment. Misophonia causes a reflex response to certain sounds in an individual. These noises are particular to the person with Misophonia. The common nature of these noises is generally soft, repetitive, and generic.

Sound Disorders: Types of Noises Involved

As we discussed, the type of noises involved follow a similar pattern. Anyone anywhere can produce these atrocious and despicable sound waves. This makes the life of a person with Misophonia even more miserable. The noises that a person with Misophonia despises can be the following.

  • Chewing food
  • Breathing noises
  • Beats of a bass
  • Foot stomping
  • Keyboard clicking
  • Fingers snapping

The most commonly reported noise is of chewing food. The sound of a person chewing food is an emotional trigger for most of the people with Misophonia. This will normally result in the person eating alone. People with Misophonia tend to modify their whole life in order to avoid these noises. As you may have noticed, the noises mentioned above follow a similar pattern. They are soft sounds, often heard regularly by most people and are in a continuous motion.

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Why Does This Happen?

Misophonic patients usually have underlying mental conditions. Most common mental disorders associated with Misophonia is OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder), Tourettes syndrome, and tinnitus. This information tells us that people with Misophonia are generally sound-sensitive people. Symptoms of Microphonia are better studied by looking at the other psychological disorders. These emotional responses are prevalent because of the hypersensitivity of the auditory and nervous system of the brain.

The Neurobiological Mechanism

The exact mechanism that takes place in the brain during Misophonic episodes is still undiscovered. It is contemplated that it occurs due to the anomalous workings and coordination of the limbic system, which is responsible for the emotions in the brain, the auditory cortex, the part of the brain that perceives sounds and the autonomic nervous system which is responsible for all involuntary functions happening inside our body.

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Emotional Response

A person who has Misophonia tends to display an intense emotional response to certain noises. This emotional response is involuntary and uncontrollable. It is unlike anything that an ordinary person would face. A person with a normal mental state may be annoyed with certain noises but will not experience the same emotional response to it. The person suffering from Misophonia, not only hears certain noises as being annoying or disruptive but also feels them being painful. This response is like a reflex action.

The experience of going through Misophonic reaction can be traumatizing. In some severe cases, it may also be scarring. The emotions a person feels are not fleeting and shortly diminished. They can have a long lasting effect on people. A person with Misophonia can tolerate certain noises to a limit. Once that limit is over, there is an outburst of emotion. It is like all the bottled anger and frustration leading up to that moment is releases. It usually does not take time to cross that threshold. In other cases, it takes a microsecond for the person to notice and exhibit a ferocious response.

How Misophonia Affects Social Life

You won’t see a lot of people talking about Misophonia. Most cases of Misophonia remain unreported. This is because the people who suffer from this disorder feel embarrassed to talk about it. There is a lack of awareness amongst the people about this disorder. Misophonia can affect your social life in various ways. It not only affects you but also the people around you.

Misophonia’s Effects on Your Personality

Misophonia makes you unbearable to certain noises that you are likely to come across in your regular life. This condition encourages individuals to become socially distant from others. A person with Misophonia is more likely to opt for a path of social isolation and avoidance. This avoidance and lack of interaction can stunt personality growth and can be harmful for one’s mental health. It can eventually lead to other problems like depression and anxiety.

Call The Misophonia Cognitive Center To Get Help

As of now, there is no clinical procedure to cure this mental disorder instantly. However, many people who suffer from this have benefited greatly from therapeutic treatments. Have you ever experienced certain noises that have infuriated you beyond bounds? Or do you know someone who shares similar traits?

Please book a tele-appointment with specialist Stephen Katz LCSW at the Misophonia Cognitive Center so we can help you and loved ones with Misophonia.

Stephen Geller Katz LCSW

What are Sound Disorders?

A sound disorder is a communication disorder, which starts showing its symptoms in the early stages of life. Children who start developing the disorder, will develop disfluency in speech and will also struggle in producing some sounds and saying a few words.

What are sound disorders?

People with this disorder struggle to coordinate their tongue, jaw, and lips with their breathing and vocal cords. Various treatments will fix the speech gradually. If the child sticks to the treatment exercises, his speech might even perfect in his adult years.

Effects of Speech Disorder

When a person has some disability, they start to shy off from conversations, and they become very quiet.

Similarly, when a child develops a communication disorder where his intellect is the same as the other kids, but his only shortcoming is, he cannot speak clearly. Such kids start making lesser friends, which affects their social life big time.

Since the kid is not able to communicate properly, their academic life is also greatly affected. The child is unable to participate in extracurricular and in class. If the disorder retains for long, the disorder will affect a person’s professional life. They might face bullying, and employers neglect them.


There are many sounds that kids learn earlier than others. Most kids learn to produce m, p, and w sound quicker than sounds like of z, th, and v. Most children will learn to say all sound by the age of 4, but if you believe your child is incapable of saying all the sounds by age 4, then he might have sound disorder.

If your child tends to add sounds, change the sound, and leave a sound while speaking and you struggle to understand him, in that case, your child might have the disorder.

It is prevalent that your child says some words differently like he makes “v” sound instead of “r” and says “vabbit” instead of “rabbit.” He might also leave out some sounds while talking. Most kids do that, but if he is doing that at an older age, then it might be an alarm.

Sometimes your child might speak differently because they have a dialect or an accent. If you speak with an accent that does not mean that you have a speech disorder.

Speech disorder has distinct symptoms, which are very different from any other neurological and medical condition.

Kids at Risk of Speech Disorder

The leading cause of speech disorder is still unknown. All the cases of speech disorder have different reasons, but there are still some kids who are at higher risk. The kids who have the following might have speech disorder;

  • Hearing loss
  • Cerebral palsy or any other nervous system disorder
  • ill health like a frequent ear infection
  • cleft lip or palate or any other physical issue
  • parents low education
  • lack learning support at home
  • excessive use of pacifier or thumb-sucking
  • down syndrome
  • autism


You can fix your child’s sound disorder in two ways. Either by taking your child to a pathologist or you can do that at home too.

The pathologist will ask your child to do some activities, and he will also tell him some interesting strategies that help overcome the disorder. He will also teach him lips and tongue movements, which will correct his speech. If the child suffers from any nose, throat, and ear disease, he will also recommend him to a specialist. If the child sticks to the activities, the child will overcome the disorder quicker.

You can treat a child at home by noticing his speech when he makes the wrong sound. For that, you need to learn how to fix your child’s speech correctly. Make him practice certain sounds and words.

What is a sound disorder?

Final Thoughts

Many people ignore the fact that their child is suffering from a sound disorder until it’s too late. When your child turns 4, and he is still not making some sound right, and the child is out of breath while talking, then your child must be suffering from a sound disorder.

Sometimes a child might not be suffering from a sound disorder, and his speech is naturally a certain way. Some kids develop an accent at a young age because of the media he watches.

Speech Sound Disorder

Do you or someone you know have a speech sound disorder? If your child is unable to say some words and sounds correct, then he/she must have speech sound disorder. When you speak, you require phonological knowledge. You need your tongue, lips, and jaw to coordinate with your vocal cords and breathing to talk and produce sound.

The children who have a speech sound disorder struggle with the phonological knowledge, and they also struggle with coordinating the movements required for producing speech sound.

Speech Sound Disorder

The primary issue that arises with the communication disorder is the child having it struggle in Their academic, occupational, and social life.

The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM)

DSM is a guidebook. The first edition of the book is from the year 1952. The psychiatric association revises it in few years and makes an addition in it.

Currently, the 5th edition is in use, and this publication is from 2013. DSM-5 is the latest edition of the book. It covers many topics from anxiety, narcissistic personality disorder, speech disorder, Eating disorder, and various other mental disorders.

The DSM has categories for each disorder, with what the diagnostic criteria include, guidelines from psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and health professionals, and symptoms of the disorders.


According to the DSM-5, the following are the symptoms of speech sound disorder:

  • The first symptom is, the effects of speech sound disorder will show in earlier stages when a child starts speaking.
  • A child with speech sound disorder will suffer from omission, substitution, distortion, and phoneme addition. These complications will get in the way with your speech mostly.
  • Children who have speech sound disorder mostly struggle in social, occupational, and academic environments. These kids tend to speak lesser than others.
  • The symptoms which show on a person with speech sound disorder will not show on a person with some other neurological and medical condition patient, even people with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).
  • Speech sound impaired children will develop partial disorder by the age of two, and when they reach the age of 4, most of their speech will be intelligible.

Child Mind Institution has also given a few more symptoms for speech sound disorder, which include:

  • The child will make the wrong sound instead of the right ones, which makes the speech sound distorted.
  • The person will make nasal sounds, or they will have a sudden change in their speech, in terms of loudness and pitch. The change in sound also makes it more difficult to understand the speech.
  • Kids with the disorder might also run short on their breath while talking.


There are many causes of speech sound disorder. All the cases differ from one, so you cannot understand the exact reason for the communication disorder.

In most cases, the child who has the disorder has a family member with the same disorder. So, you can say the genetics of a person is the cause in most cases.


The most effective treatment for speech sound disorder is speech and language therapy. The therapy will consist of exercises in which the pathologist will help the patient recognize various words and sounds.

The pathologist will show the child various tongue and lips movements so that he learns to make the sounds correctly. It is the perfect way to treat the disorder and develop phonological skills.

Speech sound disorder treatment is a process, so it will take time for the child to perfect their speech. Over time, with practice, the child will learn to speak clearly without any difficulty. However, the speech disorder prognosis is a very slow process, and the treatment will not work in one go. So, you need to target specific parts of speech at one time.

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Final Thoughts

A speech disorder is a communication disorder condition in which a person struggles with producing sound for certain words. Speech disorder also comes in the category of phonological disorder, articulation disorder, and neurological disorder. In all the speech disorders is the most common.

Speech sound disorder affects your social, professional, and academic life. Since the person is struggling with speech, they tend to talk less.

Speech disorder creates disfluency of speech, and it also creates a barrier for other people to understand what you are saying. You can fix your communication with a lot of practice and patience.

Call the Misophonia cognitive center today and start managing and treating your sound disorder.


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Selective Sound Sensitivity Syndrome

Selective sound sensitivity syndrome is popularly known as misophonia. You can understand by its name that it is hatred towards selective sounds. These selective sounds are commonly known as trigger sounds. The trigger sounds can be loud, but they are very soft.

These days, ASMR videos come across as relaxing and tension releasing. If you are suffering from selective sound sensitivity syndrome, then these sounds will make you cringe.

Selective Sound Sensitivity Syndrome

It is a very common condition around the world. Around 20% of the world population is dealing with the disorder right now. So you are not dealing with this chronic disorder alone.

The Trigger Cues

You might confuse misophonia with hyperacusis. Both conditions are pretty similar, but there is a big difference, as well. If you suffer from hyperacusis, you will get triggered by some sounds and their specific characteristic. The sound might cause you physical pain. If you suffer from misophonia, the trigger sound will only get annoyed by the trigger sounds and you respond to them with bad-temper.

The recent researches show that the trigger cues can be of various kinds. 80% of the selective sound sensitivity syndrome sufferers get annoyed by sounds that come from the mouth. These sounds may be of lip-smacking, chewing, slurping, gulping, loud oral breathing, or sneezing.

Other kinds of trigger sounds can be repetitive or physical sounds. These sounds include finger tapping, nail clipping, sniffing, snorting, nose wheezing, clicking, typing, dogs barking, dish clattering, spoon scraping on dishes sound, or the clock ticking.

New research shows that some repetitive visual cues can also trigger a misophonic response, someone swinging their leg, the pendulum swinging, or the fan going around.

Trigger Sound Response

The response towards the trigger cues is known as “autonomic” response. While experiencing an autonomic response, your body instantly goes into “flight or fight” mode. In an autonomic response, you rather need to go away from the source of the trigger or you need to respond to it with aggression.  It is a very natural response. Whenever your body feels threatened, it responds with an autonomic response.

When you experience the flight or fight mode, your body starts producing adrenaline and norepinephrine. The release of these hormones causes your heart to beat faster and with that, your breathing also increases. You will feel that your muscles are tightening, which will also cause your blood vessels to constrict. While the experience your pupils will dilate and your senses will get more alert and you become more aware of your surroundings.

This is our body’s way to prepare us for responding to a threatening situation. The researchers are still finding the cause of why misophonia sufferers react to simple visual and audio cues in such ways. Researchers say that these responses are involuntary.

If you suffer from this chronic disorder, you might have built various coping mechanisms. Many people might not even notice that you suffer from a disorder like that. Using headphones all the time is a great help when it comes to dealing with misophonia.

An Under-Researched Condition

If you talk about misophonia, it is a relatively under-researched condition. There are very few studies done on it. Even though people have been dealing with for very long but researchers recently started studying about it. Selective sound sensitivity syndrome was recently named misophonia in the year 2000. Formerly no one was much aware of the disorder but since the use of the internet has normalized, people are more aware of all kinds of disorders.

Even though there is a lot of awareness about the disorder, yet all the information about the disorder comes from very limited resources. Most of the information comes from case reports and some come from extremely specific studies. There is so little proof of misophonia that the psychology guidebooks do not acknowledge the existence of misophonia. The DSM-5 or ICD 10 has topics covering misophonia. The psychologist is still finding proof and trying to build a roadmap of misophonia.

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Final Thoughts

Misophonia is a very common disorder, but there is very little research on it. Most of the information you see about is from small studies by individual researchers or case reports. The treatments which healthcare providers suggest for misophonia do not seem to work effectively. They only help you in altering your response or they help you in ignoring the trigger sound.

The Misophonia Treatment Center Treats Selective Sound Sensitivity Syndromes

Call us today to talk about identifying and treating your selective sound sensitivity syndrome.

Stephen Katz LCSW